are a pair of fist-sized organs located near the middle of our back and
outside the peritoneal cavity on each side of the spine. Together with
the skin and the respiratory system, the kidneys are the body's primary
excretory organs. Kidney is a highly specialized organ that maintains
the internal environment of the body by selectively excreting or
retaining various substances according to specific body needs.
The importance of
urine formation and excretion as the life-sustaining function is highlighted in
situations in which kidney function is suddenly lost. Without at least one
functioning kidney, death can occur within a few days. Urine is a very complex
fluid, which comprised of 95% water and 5% solids. The approximately one to one
and one-half liters of urine excreted each day are the end product of metabolism
carried out by billions of cells in the renal and urinary systems.
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