Human kidneys are a pair of fist-sized organs located near the middle of our back and outside the peritoneal cavity on each side of the spine. Together with the skin and the respiratory system, the kidneys are the body's primary excretory organs. Kidney is a highly specialized organ that maintains the internal environment of the body by selectively excreting or retaining various substances according to specific body needs.

The importance of urine formation and excretion as the life-sustaining function is highlighted in situations in which kidney function is suddenly lost. Without at least one functioning kidney, death can occur within a few days. Urine is a very complex fluid, which comprised of 95% water and 5% solids. The approximately one to one and one-half liters of urine excreted each day are the end product of metabolism carried out by billions of cells in the renal and urinary systems.

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